Fluoride level in drinking bottled waters in the Republic of Macedonia

Vesna Ambarkova, Mihail Kochubovski, Ljuben Guguvcevski, Vanco Spirov


A vast majority of people in Macedonia use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. To determine the content of fluoride in drinking bottled water available in the country. Thirty-five commercial brands of bottled water (12 out of 23 domestic production and imported brands) were procured from bigger markets in the Republic of Macedonia. Determination of the content of fluorine is performed using ion selective electrode (Thermo Orion Ion Plus Fluoride Electrode) and Ionometer (pH/ISE meter - Thermo-Orion) of the public health Institute. The content of fluoride in packaged water from domestic production ranged from 0.035 in Spring to 1.086 in vision with an average 0.368 (¹ 0.305), while imported bottled water ranged from 0.032 in ordinary water ROSA to 2.220 in bottled water KOM, with an average 0.631 (¹ 0.497). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water.  Parents that use bottled water to prepare powdered milk for babies and baby foods should be aware that it may contain higher concentrations of fluoride and put their child at risk the occurrence of dental fluorosis.


Bottled drinking water; Fluoride; Ion-selective electrode; Macedonia

Full Text:



Ambarkova V, Kokoceva-Ivanovska O, Zabokova-Bilbilova E, Petanovski H, Carcev M. Fluorine content of bottled drinking water available in the Republic of Macedonia. Abstract book of the18-th Congress of the Balkan Stomatological Society, 2013: 311.

Ambarkova V, Topitsoglou V, Iljovska S, Carcev M. Natural fluoridated drinking water from the Republic of Macedonia [in Macedonian]. Maced Stomatol Rev. 2005; 29(3-4): 177-182.

National strategy for prevention of oral diseases in children from 0 to 14 years of age in the Republic of Macedonia for the period from 2008 to 2018 [in Macedonian]. Ministry of Health. Republic of Macedonia, Skopje, 2007. Available from http://mz.gov.mk/wp

Gjorgjev D, Kocubovski M, Velev D, Filjanski P, Cvetkovska T. Some key indicators for hard drinking water in urban water supply systems in Macedonia [in Macedonian]. Second consultation on water management in the Republic Macedonia, Ohrid; 1995: 43-51.

State Statistical Office of Macedonia MakStat - statistic database imported quantity of water according to the Foreign Trade. Available from:


WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 3th edn., 2004.

Guidelines for water safety. Official Gazette no. 46/08.

Toumba KJ, Levy S, Curzon ME. The fluoride content of bottled drinking water. Br Dent J. 1994; 176(7): 266-268.

Al-OmranAM, El-Maghraby SE, Aly AA, Al-Wabel MI, Al-Asmari ZA, NadeemME. Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia. Environ Mon Ass. 2013; 185(8): 6397-6406.

Mills K, Falconer S, Cook C. Fluoride in still bottled water in Australia. Aust Dent J. 2010; 55(4): 411-416.

Thippeswamy HM, Kumar N, Anand SR, Prashant GM, Chan D. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India. Indian J Dent Res. 2010; 21(4): 528-530.

Zohouri FV, Maguire A, Moynihan PJ. Fluoride content of still bottled water available in the North-East of England, UK. Br Dent J. 2003; 195: 515-518.

Kocubovski M,Filjanski P, Gjorgjev D, Velev D, Kolevska L. New Standards of FAO/WHO quality natural mineral water. Proceedings of the XXIII-th October meetings of medical and sanitary laboratory technicians of the Republic of Macedonia, Ohrid; 1995: 65-66.

Ristovska ZM, Kocubovski. Quality mineral water "Kumanovka" - Kumanovo. Proceedings XXIII October meetings of medical laboratory and sanitary technicians of the Republic of Macedonia, Ohrid; 1995: 66.

Kocubovski M, Velev D, Gjorgjev D, Kolevska L, Dimitrov Z, Filjanski P. The specific characteristics of the natural mineral water "Katlanovka." Fourth counseling water management in Macedonia [in Macedonian]. Ohrid; 1997: 295-298.

Guideline of the special requirements for safety of natural mineral water. Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia no. 32/06.


  • There are currently no refbacks.